The use of geothermal energy resources to support anthropogenic activities have a long-lasting tradition, renewed in recent decades with the increasing use of low enthalpy geothermal energy (LEG) with combined systems of heat pumps and geothermal exchange, exploiting the enormous thermal capacity and very low temperature variability of subsoil, including rocks and water. The further potential global increase of LEG use could be enormous, although LEG is already the main geothermal energy sources in Europe, contributing significantly to reach 2030 UN sustainable development goals (SDGs) on renewable energy resources, as a further leg to support all necessary efforts for these scopes. This research pursues LEG spreading improving knowledge on limitations of guidelines, technical regulations and/or laws, briefly rules, especially in terms of potential risks or limitations due to environmental constrains or natural phenomena. A global documentary research, including scientific articles, books, technical reports from qualified institutions, technical standards, guidelines, regulations, and laws, was realized with three different groups of keywords. A total of 161 documents were selected after some steps, including quality check. Identical English and Italian keyword sets were used to span from an international global scale to the complex local scale which characterizes the Italian experience. A complex sheet was filled in for each document, supporting data discussion, planned with a geographical criterion, from global to local. The system of rules resulted worldwide inhomogeneous and complex, with high differences from countries, nations or regions, also at local scale. The low quality or the absence of simple and careful “rules” emerged an important obstacle to LEG diffusion that can guarantee sustainability and the absence of natural risks. Main virtuous systems of rules were recognized as very useful to promote LEG spreading but these are still uncommon. The discussion of optimal experiences and the overview of potential natural risks due to LEG complete the paper.
La sezione dedicata alle pubblicazioni scientifiche a cura del Gruppo di Idrogeologia viene periodicamente aggiornata con nuovi articoli appena vengono pubblicati o modificato il loro accesso nel momento in cui l’editore li rende open access.
A tal fine si evidenziano i seguenti articoli per i quali ora è possibile accedere al testo completo:
Polemio, M., e L. Romanazzi. 1999. «Numerical simulation of ground water protection works for industrial waste dump». Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment 57 (3): 253–61. (Open access) https://rdcu.be/b6p8I
Polemio, M., e T. Lonigro. 2015. «Trends in Climate, Short-Duration Rainfall, and Damaging Hydrogeological Events (Apulia, Southern Italy)». Natural Hazards 75 (1): 515–40. https://rdcu.be/b8Cu4
Su una prestigiosa rivista americana (Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management) è stata pubblicata la “state-of-the art review” curata dal nostro Gruppo sulle modalità di gestione degli acquiferi costieri e/o a rischio di salinizzazione, problema molto sentito in Puglia, tenuto conto di tutte le esperienze ad oggi maturate a scala mondiale.
L’articolo è stato selezionato per entrare nella “Editor’s Choice Collection” per cui può essere scaricato liberamente, previa registrazione gratuita, alla pagina
Zuffianò L.E., Limoni P.P., De Giorgio G., Polemio M. (2020) Natural Groundwater Background Levels of Nitrate and Landfill Effects (Apulia, Southern Italy). In: De Maio M., Tiwari A. (eds) Applied Geology. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43953-8_4
E’ stato pubblicato on line un e-book, special issue della rivista Water sulla piattaforma della MDPI Books dal titolo “Groundwater Resources and Salt Water Intrusion in a Changing Environment ” a cura di Maurizio Polemio e Kristine Walraevens. Esso approfondisce, mediante la presentazione di lavori di 30 scienziati di 11 paesi il forte impatto del cambiamento globale in termini di cambiamento climatico e pressione antropogenica con effetti fortemente negativi sulle risorse idriche sotterranee costiere, ampiamente influenzate da intrusione marina.
Dear Colleagues, The prospect of a word population of 9 billion by 2050, growing urbanisation, intensive irrigated agriculture and climate change will add extra pressures on the water resources and the environment. The availability of highquality freshwater is a decisive factor for socio-economic development. Water scarcity occurs in many countries— particularly in the Mediterranean, Middle East, Africa, etc.— that are confronted with a crucial combination of a severe lack of and increasing demand for high-quality water. World water resources seem abundant; however, only 0.7% of this total amount is usable water. Serious water pollution problems make 1/5 of the world’s population (approximately 1.1 billion people) at risk of water-related diseases. Competition for water made scarce by intensive irrigation is already a major source of conflict in arid and semiarid areas. Groundwater is worldwide the main source of domestic supply and irrigation. […]
La penuria idrica in Puglia sin da epoca storica, ha fortemente condizionato la vita umana e gli insediamenti soprattutto lontano dalla costa. Se lo sviluppo possente degli acquedotti ha progressivamente soddisfatto, a partire dall’inizio del secolo scorso, la domanda idrica potabile, molto resta da fare per chiudere il bilancio idrico regionale in modo che risultino soddisfatte le esigenze produttive, in specie quelle agricole e la sostenibilità dei prelievi. Nel corso del tempo, soprattutto a causa delle modificazioni climatiche, osservate in particolare dal 1980 in poi in tutta l’Italia meridionale , si è registrato un importante calo della ricarica che, posto in relazione al crescente utilizzo delle risorse, ha determinato condizioni di sovrasfruttamento. Uno degli effetti più rilevanti è stato l’incremento della salinità delle acque sotterranee pugliesi, un fenomeno ad oggi, ben conosciuto. Nonostante le conoscenze scientifiche acquisite, i criteri di gestione applicati non hanno impedito una progressiva degradazione qualitativa. Alla luce di queste premesse, il presente contributo analizza le più recenti modificazioni climatiche in termini di piovosità e temperatura atmosferica, discusse sulla base delle misure acquisite negli ultimi 95 anni, delle variazioni tendenziali della disponibilità di risorse idriche sotterranee e di come queste potrebbero essere migliorate grazie alla ricarica controllata degli acquiferi.
This Special Issue presents the work of 30 scientists of 11 countries. It confirms that the impacts of global change, resulting from both climate change and increasing anthropogenic pressure, are huge on worldwide coastal areas (and very particularly on some islands of the Pacific Ocean), with highly negative effects on coastal groundwater resources, widely affected by seawater intrusion. Some improved research methods are proposed in the contributions: using innovative hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical monitoring; assessing impacts of the changing environment on the coastal groundwater resources in terms of quantity and quality; and using modelling, especially to improve management approaches. The scientific research needed to face these challenges must continue to be deployed by different approaches based on the monitoring, modeling, and management of groundwater resources. Novel and more efficient methods must be developed to keep up with the accelerating pace of global change.
L’articolo completo può essere scaricato seguento questo link: Full Text
Maurizio Polemio (a), Manuel Sapiano (b), Francesca Santaloia (a), Alessia Basso (a), Vittoria Dragone (a), Giorgio De Giorgio (a), Pierpaolo Limoni (a), Livia Emanuela Zuffianò (a), Mangion John (b) & Micheael Schembri
(a) Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica – CNR, Bari, Italy. (b) Energy and Water Agency – EWA, Luqa, Malta.
The Maltese Islands are located in the central Mediterranean area, on the Malta-Sicily Platform. The archipelago consists of three main islands, Malta, Gozo and Comino, and several other small uninhabited islets. Malta, the largest of the three islands, has an extent of 246 km2. The aim of this paper is to describe the collaboration between CNRIRPI and EWA (Energy and Water Agency of Malta) and the efforts to upgrade the hydrogeological knowledge of the Malta Island, pursuing the sustainable utilisation of groundwater resources. This will support the water management activities for optimizing the use of Malta’s groundwater resources. Firstly, a review of the hydrogeological environment of the aquifer systems has been undertaken, identifying so some important data gaps that should be filled up. The eventual groundwater body management tool to be developed under this collaborative initiative will enable the formulation and testing of updated groundwater exploitation strategies. These plans ensure the protection of the groundwater bodies from regional and localized sea-water intrusion, whilst taking full consideration of the potential effects of climate change, including the variability of recharge, sea level and seawater salinity.
Seawater intrusion is the main cause of groundwater salinisation in Italy. The largest coastal aquifers, highly vulnerable to salinisation, are in Apulia. For these aquifers, main changes in terms of climate change and utilisation are discussed together with piezometric trends, as the latter are relevant triggering factors for upconing and lateral seawater intrusion. For this purpose, time series from 1921 to 2016 concerning climate (rainfall and temperature), from 1965 to 2016 concerning groundwater availability (piezometric values), and recent periodic data on potable utilisation are discussed. Climate and groundwater availability trends at 2016 are compared with trends previously assessed, using the same dataset (1921-2001 for rainfall and temperature). The negative characteristic of rainfall 1921-2001 trend improved in the next years up to disappear in the assessment of rainfall 1921-2016 trend. Notwithstanding the improving of rainfall trend and the reduction of groundwater utilisation, both observed at 2016, the improvement of piezometric trends at 2016 is not enough to remove a prevailing decreasing trend, previously observed. The increases of temperature and effective evapotranspiration should be considered a relevant explanation of groundwater availability reduction. The consequence of these results should be quickly considered in the management of groundwater resources.
The complete article is an open access on the Italian Journal of Groundwater web site:
Casarano, D., Dragone, V., & Polemio, M. (2019). Groundwater resources at salinisation risk: effects of climate and utilisation changes in the case of Apulian coastal aquifers (Southeastern Italy). Acque Sotterranee – Italian Journal of Groundwater, 8(1).