Muzzillo, R.; Zuffianò, L.E.; Rizzo, E.; Canora, F.; Capozzoli, L.; Giampaolo, V.; De Giorgio, G.; Sdao, F.; Polemio, M. Seawater Intrusion Proneness and Geophysical Investigations in the Metaponto Coastal Plain (Basilicata, Italy). Water2021, 13, 53
The Metaponto coastal plain extends about 40 km along the Ionian coast, between the Sinni and Bradano Rivers (southern Italy). During the 20th century, the increases in modern irrigation systems, land reclamation works, the overexploitation of wells, and agricultural and industrial activities have deeply modified land use and groundwater availability and quality along the plain. These modifications negatively impacted the natural systems in terms of groundwater and soil salinization, magnifying the risks due to seawater intrusion. In this study, we explored the proneness to seawater intrusion, testing a multidisciplinary approach based on hydrochemical and geophysical investigations. A significant portion of the coastal plain was selected for this purpose. A set of 49 groundwater samples was analyzed to define the chemical characteristics of the water and geoelectrical measurements were recorded along three long profiles. The geoelectrical surveys showed in detail the aquifer bottom pattern where it is deeply incised by paleovalleys, defining the main hydrostratigraphic features, as it is necessary to prevent seawater intrusion worsening. The hydrochemical data highlighted areas with higher seawater intrusion proneness. The acquired measurements show the high proneness to seawater intrusion, especially where the aquifer bottom is very deep below the sea level, also far from the coast, and the relevance of the detailed knowledge of the aquifer bottom in supporting any kind of management. View Full-Text
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The use of geothermal energy resources to support anthropogenic activities have a long-lasting tradition, renewed in recent decades with the increasing use of low enthalpy geothermal energy (LEG) with combined systems of heat pumps and geothermal exchange, exploiting the enormous thermal capacity and very low temperature variability of subsoil, including rocks and water. The further potential global increase of LEG use could be enormous, although LEG is already the main geothermal energy sources in Europe, contributing significantly to reach 2030 UN sustainable development goals (SDGs) on renewable energy resources, as a further leg to support all necessary efforts for these scopes. This research pursues LEG spreading improving knowledge on limitations of guidelines, technical regulations and/or laws, briefly rules, especially in terms of potential risks or limitations due to environmental constrains or natural phenomena. A global documentary research, including scientific articles, books, technical reports from qualified institutions, technical standards, guidelines, regulations, and laws, was realized with three different groups of keywords. A total of 161 documents were selected after some steps, including quality check. Identical English and Italian keyword sets were used to span from an international global scale to the complex local scale which characterizes the Italian experience. A complex sheet was filled in for each document, supporting data discussion, planned with a geographical criterion, from global to local. The system of rules resulted worldwide inhomogeneous and complex, with high differences from countries, nations or regions, also at local scale. The low quality or the absence of simple and careful “rules” emerged an important obstacle to LEG diffusion that can guarantee sustainability and the absence of natural risks. Main virtuous systems of rules were recognized as very useful to promote LEG spreading but these are still uncommon. The discussion of optimal experiences and the overview of potential natural risks due to LEG complete the paper.
La sezione dedicata alle pubblicazioni scientifiche a cura del Gruppo di Idrogeologia viene periodicamente aggiornata con nuovi articoli appena vengono pubblicati o modificato il loro accesso nel momento in cui l’editore li rende open access.
A tal fine si evidenziano i seguenti articoli per i quali ora è possibile accedere al testo completo:
Polemio, M., e L. Romanazzi. 1999. «Numerical simulation of ground water protection works for industrial waste dump». Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment 57 (3): 253–61. (Open access) https://rdcu.be/b6p8I
Polemio, M., e T. Lonigro. 2015. «Trends in Climate, Short-Duration Rainfall, and Damaging Hydrogeological Events (Apulia, Southern Italy)». Natural Hazards 75 (1): 515–40. https://rdcu.be/b8Cu4
Su una prestigiosa rivista americana (Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management) è stata pubblicata la “state-of-the art review” curata dal nostro Gruppo sulle modalità di gestione degli acquiferi costieri e/o a rischio di salinizzazione, problema molto sentito in Puglia, tenuto conto di tutte le esperienze ad oggi maturate a scala mondiale.
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Zuffianò L.E., Limoni P.P., De Giorgio G., Polemio M. (2020) Natural Groundwater Background Levels of Nitrate and Landfill Effects (Apulia, Southern Italy). In: De Maio M., Tiwari A. (eds) Applied Geology. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43953-8_4
E’ stato pubblicato on line un e-book, special issue della rivista Water sulla piattaforma della MDPI Books dal titolo “Groundwater Resources and Salt Water Intrusion in a Changing Environment ” a cura di Maurizio Polemio e Kristine Walraevens. Esso approfondisce, mediante la presentazione di lavori di 30 scienziati di 11 paesi il forte impatto del cambiamento globale in termini di cambiamento climatico e pressione antropogenica con effetti fortemente negativi sulle risorse idriche sotterranee costiere, ampiamente influenzate da intrusione marina.
Dear Colleagues, The prospect of a word population of 9 billion by 2050, growing urbanisation, intensive irrigated agriculture and climate change will add extra pressures on the water resources and the environment. The availability of highquality freshwater is a decisive factor for socio-economic development. Water scarcity occurs in many countries— particularly in the Mediterranean, Middle East, Africa, etc.— that are confronted with a crucial combination of a severe lack of and increasing demand for high-quality water. World water resources seem abundant; however, only 0.7% of this total amount is usable water. Serious water pollution problems make 1/5 of the world’s population (approximately 1.1 billion people) at risk of water-related diseases. Competition for water made scarce by intensive irrigation is already a major source of conflict in arid and semiarid areas. Groundwater is worldwide the main source of domestic supply and irrigation. […]
La penuria idrica in Puglia sin da epoca storica, ha fortemente condizionato la vita umana e gli insediamenti soprattutto lontano dalla costa. Se lo sviluppo possente degli acquedotti ha progressivamente soddisfatto, a partire dall’inizio del secolo scorso, la domanda idrica potabile, molto resta da fare per chiudere il bilancio idrico regionale in modo che risultino soddisfatte le esigenze produttive, in specie quelle agricole e la sostenibilità dei prelievi. Nel corso del tempo, soprattutto a causa delle modificazioni climatiche, osservate in particolare dal 1980 in poi in tutta l’Italia meridionale , si è registrato un importante calo della ricarica che, posto in relazione al crescente utilizzo delle risorse, ha determinato condizioni di sovrasfruttamento. Uno degli effetti più rilevanti è stato l’incremento della salinità delle acque sotterranee pugliesi, un fenomeno ad oggi, ben conosciuto. Nonostante le conoscenze scientifiche acquisite, i criteri di gestione applicati non hanno impedito una progressiva degradazione qualitativa. Alla luce di queste premesse, il presente contributo analizza le più recenti modificazioni climatiche in termini di piovosità e temperatura atmosferica, discusse sulla base delle misure acquisite negli ultimi 95 anni, delle variazioni tendenziali della disponibilità di risorse idriche sotterranee e di come queste potrebbero essere migliorate grazie alla ricarica controllata degli acquiferi.
This Special Issue presents the work of 30 scientists of 11 countries. It confirms that the impacts of global change, resulting from both climate change and increasing anthropogenic pressure, are huge on worldwide coastal areas (and very particularly on some islands of the Pacific Ocean), with highly negative effects on coastal groundwater resources, widely affected by seawater intrusion. Some improved research methods are proposed in the contributions: using innovative hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical monitoring; assessing impacts of the changing environment on the coastal groundwater resources in terms of quantity and quality; and using modelling, especially to improve management approaches. The scientific research needed to face these challenges must continue to be deployed by different approaches based on the monitoring, modeling, and management of groundwater resources. Novel and more efficient methods must be developed to keep up with the accelerating pace of global change.
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Maurizio Polemio (a), Manuel Sapiano (b), Francesca Santaloia (a), Alessia Basso (a), Vittoria Dragone (a), Giorgio De Giorgio (a), Pierpaolo Limoni (a), Livia Emanuela Zuffianò (a), Mangion John (b) & Micheael Schembri
(a) Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica – CNR, Bari, Italy. (b) Energy and Water Agency – EWA, Luqa, Malta.
The Maltese Islands are located in the central Mediterranean area, on the Malta-Sicily Platform. The archipelago consists of three main islands, Malta, Gozo and Comino, and several other small uninhabited islets. Malta, the largest of the three islands, has an extent of 246 km2. The aim of this paper is to describe the collaboration between CNRIRPI and EWA (Energy and Water Agency of Malta) and the efforts to upgrade the hydrogeological knowledge of the Malta Island, pursuing the sustainable utilisation of groundwater resources. This will support the water management activities for optimizing the use of Malta’s groundwater resources. Firstly, a review of the hydrogeological environment of the aquifer systems has been undertaken, identifying so some important data gaps that should be filled up. The eventual groundwater body management tool to be developed under this collaborative initiative will enable the formulation and testing of updated groundwater exploitation strategies. These plans ensure the protection of the groundwater bodies from regional and localized sea-water intrusion, whilst taking full consideration of the potential effects of climate change, including the variability of recharge, sea level and seawater salinity.